Read MCQ Questions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation with Answers

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Principles of Inheritance and Variation Class 12 MCQs Questions with Answers

Multiple Choice Type Questions

Question 1.

Name the scientist who descovered the laws of Heredity.

(a) Gregor Mendel

(b) Newton

(c) Punnett

(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Gregor Mendel


Question 2.

Punnett square was developed by

(a) Mendel

(b) Watson and Sútton

(c) Reginald

(d) Correns

Answer

Answer: (c) Reginald


Question 3.

Who introduced chromosomaJfheory of inheritance?

(a) Mendel

(b) Sutton

(c) Reginald

(d) Boyen

Answer

Answer: (b) Sutton


Question 4.

The plant Mendel used to study inheritance of two genes is

(a) Apple

(b) Mango

(c) Garden pea

(d) Potato

Answer

Answer: (c) Garden pea


Question 5.

Mendel published his work on inheritance of characters in

(a) 1870

(b) 1900

(c) 1865

(d) 1845

Answer

Answer: (c) 1865


Question 6.

Female heterogamety is

(a) two different types of gametes are produced by females.

(b) four different types of gametes are produced – by males.

(c) Can be both (a) and (b)

(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) two different types of gametes are produced by females.


Question 7.

Failure of segregation of chomatids during cell division cycle results in the gain or loss of a chromosome(s) is called

(a) Female heterogamety

(b) Male heterogamety

(c) Aneuploidy

(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (c) Aneuploidy


Question 8.

An analysis of traits in several generation of a family is called the

(a) Pedigree analysis

(b) Mendel analysis

(c) Punneet analysis

(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Pedigree analysis


Question 9.

Haemophilia is a

(a) Mendalian disorder

(b) Chromosomal disorder

(c) Can be (a) or (b)

(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (a) Mendalian disorder


Question 10.

Down’s syndrome is a

(a) Mendelian disorder

(b) Chromosomal disorder

(c) Can be (a) or (b)

(d) None of the above

Answer

Answer: (b) Chromosomal disorder


Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.

……………… conducted hydridisation experiments on garden peas.

Answer

Answer: Mendel


Question 2.

Genes which code for a pair/collection of contrasting traits are known as ………………

Answer

Answer: alleles


Question 3.

Identical means ………………

Answer

Answer: homozygous


Question 4.

A factor with a pair of dissimilar factors is called ……………… factor.

Answer

Answer: dominant


Question 5.

Hybrids which contain alleles that express contrasting traits are called ………………

Answer

Answer: Heterozygous


Question 6.

Characters are controlled by discrete units called ………………

Answer

Answer: factors


Question 7.

Chromosomes are called ………………

Answer

Answer: coloured bodies


Question 8.

The mechanism of ……………… has always been a puzzle before the geneticists.

Answer

Answer: sex determination


Question 9.

Failure of segregation of chromatids during cell division cycle results in the gain or loss of a chromosome(s), called ………………

Answer

Answer: aneuploidy


Question 10.

An analysis of traits is a several generations of a family is called ……………… analysis.

Answer

Answer: pedigree.


Write True or False

Question 1.

Sutton conducted the hybridisation experiments on garden pea.

Answer

Answer: False


Question 2.

A true breeding line is one that, having undergone continuous self-pollination, shows the stable trait inheritance and expression for several generation.

Answer

Answer: True


Question 3.

Mendel selected 12 true-breeding pea plant varieties, as pairs which are similar except for one character link contrasting traits.

Answer

Answer: False


Question 4.

Genes which code for a pair/collection of contrasting traits are known as alleles.

Answer

Answer: True


Question 5.

Characters are controlled by discrete units called factors.

Answer

Answer: True


Question 6.

Chromosomes are also called ‘coloured bodies’.

Answer

Answer: True


Question 7.

Mendel attributed the physical association or linkage of two genes and coined the terms linkage and recombination.

Answer

Answer: False


Question 8.

Aneuploidy is the failure of segregation of chromatids during cell division cycle which results in the gain or loss of a chromosome(s).

Answer

Answer: True


Question 9.

An analysis of traits is several generations of a family is called Punnett analysis.

Answer

Answer: False


Question 10.

Haemophilia is a Mendelian disorder.

Answer

Answer: True


One Word Type Questions

Question 1.

Name the scientist who associated the theory of heredity.

Answer

Answer: Gregor Mendel.


Question 2.

By what name genes which code for a pair/collection of contrasting traits known as?

Answer

Answer: Alleles.


Question 3.

Which square can be effectively used to understand the independent segregation of the two pair of genes?

Answer

Answer: Punnett square.


Question 4.

By what other name genes are known as?

Answer

Answer: Factors.


Question 5.

During which stage of meiosis I, the two chromosome pairs can align at the metaphase plate independently of each other?

Answer

Answer: Anaphase.


Question 6.

Give an example of XO type of sex determination in which the males’ have only one X-chromosome besides the autosomes, whereas females have a pair of X-chromosomes.

Answer

Answer: Grasshopper.


Question 7.

What is the analysis of traits in a several generations of a family called?

Answer

Answer: Pedigree analysis.


Question 8.

Name the two types of genetic disorder.

Answer

Answer: Mendelian disorder and chromosomal disorder.


Question 9.

What type of disorder is colour blindness?

Answer

Answer: Mendelian disorder.


Question 10.

What type of disorder is sickle cell anaemia?

Answer

Answer: Mendelian disorder.


Match the Following

Column I Column II
1. Sickle cell anaemia A. Mendalian disorder
2. Phenylketonuria B. Chromosomal disorder
3. Down’s syndrome C. Chromosomal disorder
4. Turner’s syndrome D. Mendel
5. Laws of Heredity E. Mendalian disorder
Answer

Answer:

Column I Column II
1. Sickle cell anaemia E. Mendalian disorder
2. Phenylketonuria A. Mendalian disorder
3. Down’s syndrome B. Chromosomal disorder
4. Turner’s syndrome C. Chromosomal disorder
5. Laws of Heredity D. Mendel

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